100 questions & answers about osteoporosis and osteopenia by Ivy M. Alexander

By Ivy M. Alexander

Nearly ten million americans have osteoporosis and thirty-four million have osteopenia (low bone mass) with many extra in danger. even if you think you have those stipulations or have a chum or relative with osteoporosis or osteopenia, this informative e-book deals aid for women and men of every age. a hundred Questions & solutions approximately Osteoporosis and Osteopenia, moment version presents authoritative, sensible solutions on your questions on therapies, way of life judgements to enhance bone healthiness, assets of aid, reviews from women and men with bone loss, and masses extra. New subject matters within the moment variation comprise: FRAX® New drug details during the e-book Osteonecrosis of the jaw nationwide Osteoporosis starting place (NOF) and bone loss trying out

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The central and long bones have more trabecular bone than the other smaller bones in the body. Trabecular bone, which comprises about 20% of the body’s bone, provides strength and integrity, produces blood products, and provides the surface used for mineral exchange, such as phosphorus and calcium. Bone marrow is found in the spaces between trabecular bone. Cortical bone makes up the hard outer shell of bone and is critical for bone strength. Figure 5 shows trabecular and cortical bone. Menopause hormone therapy (MHT) Type of treatment used for the relief of menopause symptoms; also helps to prevent bone loss.

The National Osteoporosis Foundation recommends bone mineral density (BMD) testing on the following individuals: • If you are a women aged 65 or older, you should be tested for osteoporosis even if you have no other risk factors. • If you are under age 65, postmenopausal, and you have more than one risk factor (other than being white, postmenopausal, or female), you should be tested. Generally, risk factors include: Fractures in adulthood (especially age 40–45) with low trauma Family history of osteoporosis Genetic factors Sedentary lifestyle Nutritional deficiencies Excessive alcohol intake Cigarette smoking Low body weight or body mass index (BMI) below 22 Certain medications (especially steroids) Low testosterone levels in men Amenorrhea (no menstrual periods) from excessive exercise, eating disorders, or hormonal imbalances Hormonal imbalances (prior to menopause) Anorexia nervosa Certain medical conditions (see Question 13).

Bone turnover The process of breaking down bone and forming new bone in its place, a process that occurs throughout life. When bone is growing (during childhood through early adulthood) new formation exceeds breakdown; later in life breakdown exceeds formation. Obesity (BMI >30) can also contribute to the development of osteoporosis, usually because people who are obese tend to be less active and, most importantly, they tend to exercise less. Lack of exercise is correlated directly with bone loss (see Question 43).

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