By Stanley D Brunn
@text: during this ebook, a world workforce of political geographers and political scientists learn the effect of eleven September 2001 on overseas regulations and diplomacy. The authors draw from numerous diverse views to debate Amer
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Since all such norms of reciprocal obligation share in common their basis on the bond of sameness, a moral community like Islam also functions to exclude ‘others’ and provides justification for treating non-Muslims differently than one is obliged to treat fellow Muslims. By demarcating inclusion and exclusion on the basis of sameness and difference, moral communities draw boundaries of ‘inside and Copyright © 2004 Frank Cass & Co. Ltd outside’ according to which justice is distributed. Moral boundaries are also articulated authoritatively as a system of obligations and duties attaching to community membership, such as jihad as defined by Islamists.
The Westphalian state provided a territorial basis to fix and enforce Copyright © 2004 Frank Cass & Co. Ltd boundaries of identity so that the distinction between ‘inside’ and ‘outside’ became defensible. 29 Just as the identity of citizen was constructed and manipulated by the rulers of states hundreds of years ago, today other identities are being constructed and reconstructed and managed by demagogues. Osama bin Laden typifies this sort of demagogue. The Westphalian state evolved within the historical context of shifting identities and boundaries that redefined the moral community.
The historical alternative to hegemonic or ‘balance of power’ routes to global peace was a ‘liberal internationalist’ emphasis on international law, transnational institutions and the multilateral exercise of civil power. Its most vibrant contemporary incarnation is ‘cosmopolitan democracy’ advanced by David Held, but as suggested elsewhere there is a gaping hole in cosmopolitanism12 which at present can only be filled by the anti-globalisation/anti-war movement. Globalisation and Ideology Neo-liberalism, with its emphasis on civil power in the market and its playing down of the role of the state, state borders, security and military power, seems to be in retreat from a new imperialism and neo-conservatism.