A History of Egypt: From the Arab Conquest to the Present by Afaf Lutfi Al-Sayyid Marsot

By Afaf Lutfi Al-Sayyid Marsot

Автор - профессор истории Ближнего и Среднего Востока Калифорнийского Университета - в своей книге даёт краткий курс истории Египта - от завоевания государства арабами, через эпоху мамлюков, объединение Египта в Османской империи, либеральные эксперименты в конституционном правительстве в начале двадцатого столетия, продолжившиеся в годы Насера и Садата, до настоящего времени, характеризующегося появлением новых политических партий, укреплением исламского фундаментализма и постепенного изменения отношения к женщинам.Образцы сканов:

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He was said to be of a somewhat paranoid nature and distrustful of his regiments; so, thinking to balance their influence by a new force, he bought himself enough slaves to make up a regiment. These slaves, known as mamluks, an Arabic word meaning ‘owned’, were both to save his kingdom and destroy his dynasty at one and the same time. Al-Salih Ayyub received word that a new Crusade was sailing towards Egypt under the leadership of Louis IX, later to become sanctified. While preparations for the invasion in 1249 were under way, alSalih died in his tent.

A serious outbreak of civil strife, pitting two groups of mamluks against each other, crowned the calamities. Qaitbay, said to be worn out by these events, died and a period of strife and chaos followed, until one amir, Qansuh al-Ghuri, finally seized power in 1501 and instituted a more repressive regime than ever before. Qansuh, whose name had become a byword in popular parlance for anyone displaying overweening arrogance and conceit, restored order, but levied ten months’ taxes and confiscated lands which were held in trust for charity.

The Egyptians, who like making puns, immediately named the new viceroy Khain Bey, a pun on the man’s name, for while Khair means ‘good’ Khain means ‘traitor’. The former mamluk empire was now divided into three sections. The northern regions (the Syrian provinces closest to the Ottoman boundaries) became the governorate of Aleppo. The southern areas centred round Damascus formed the second province, while Egypt, with Cairo as its capital, became the third province or governorate. Khair was appointed governor for life as a vassal of the sultan rather than as a provincial governor on yearly tenure, the usual Ottoman practice.

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