A Papago Grammar by Ofelia Zepeda

By Ofelia Zepeda

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But notice that the auxiliary of the second sentence is dropped out; the following is never said: *'Uwî 'o cipkan c 9a:ni 'an ko:s. EXERCISES A. Translate into Papago, using the conjunction c; 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Mary and Frank are walking around here. The women were talking and laughing. The cows and the calves are sleeping. The doctor is writing. Albert and Peter and you were writing. B. On a separate sheet of paper conjoin the following sentences: Example A:h\ 'an cipkan. + 'A:pi 'ap aş cicwi. 'A:ni 'an cipkan p 'a:pi aş cicwi.

4. 'A:cim 'ac pi şa'i ko:ks. 5. No 'idam 'i:ya cicpkan? 6. 'A:pim 'am 'amai cicwi. 7. Hegai 'o ganhu med. 8. 'A:pi 'ap 'i:ya ke:k. LESSON 1 Conjunctions VOCABULARY NOUNS Singular Plural maistla teacher makai doctor 'e-maşcamdam student 'o'ohana book mamaistla teachers mamakai doctors 'e-mamşcamdam students 'o'ohana books VERBS hehem laughing 'oyopo walking around 'o'ohan writing, drawing hehem laughing 'oimed walking around 'o'ohan writing, drawing CONJOINING SIMPLE WORDS In Papago the element c (and) is a conjunction which can be used to conjoin words, as in the following examples: 1.

He (she) is/was playing. 18 SUBJECT PRONOUNS A N D IMPERFECTIVE AUXILIARY 4. a. 'A:cim 'ac ganhu wo:po'o. b. Ganhu 'ac wo:po'o a:cim. } 5. a. 'A:pim 'am 'i:ya cicwi. b. 'I;ya 'am cicwi 'a:pim. ) are /were playing right here. 6. a. Hegam 'o aş nenok. b. 'O aş nenok hegam. 19 We are/were running over there. They are /were just speaking. NOTE: When you use the particle aş (just), it must follow the auxiliary, and in this case, the auxiliary may come first in the sentence, contrary to our general rule.

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