By James K. Hoffmeier
Pharaoh Akhenaten, who reigned for seventeen years within the fourteenth century B.C.E, is without doubt one of the so much exciting rulers of old Egypt. His unusual visual appeal and his preoccupation with worshiping the sunlight disc Aten have inspired educational dialogue and controversy for greater than a century. regardless of the varied books and articles approximately this enigmatic determine, many questions on Akhenaten and the Atenism faith stay unanswered.
In Akhenaten and the Origins of Monotheism, James okay. Hoffmeier argues that Akhenaten was once no longer, as is usually acknowledged, an intensive advocating a brand new faith yet particularly a primitivist: that's, one that reaches again to a golden age and emulates it. Akhenaten's proposal used to be the previous nation (2650-2400 B.C.E.), while the sun-god Re/Atum governed because the unmatched head of the Egyptian pantheon. Hoffmeier unearths that Akhenaten used to be a real convert to the worship of Aten, the only writer God, in keeping with the Pharoah's personal testimony of a theophany, a divine come upon that introduced his monotheistic spiritual odyssey.
The ebook additionally explores the Atenist religion's attainable courting to Israel's faith, providing a detailed comparability of the hymn to the Aten to Psalm 104, which has been pointed out by means of students as prompted via the Egyptian hymn.
Through a cautious studying of key texts, works of art, and archaeological reviews, Hoffmeier presents compelling new insights on a faith that predated Moses and Hebrew monotheism, the impression of Atenism on Egyptian faith and politics, and the aftermath of Akhenaten's reign.
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Additional resources for Akhenaten and the Origins of Monotheism
In response, Ahmose began a program of restoring temples that had decayed. Another example is found during Hatshepsut’s reign. She restored the temple of Hathor at Cusae in Middle Egypt; she describes it as having fallen into ruin. She restored and staffed other temples, too, and seems to associate this neglect due to the presence of the Asiatic Hyksos (A. H. Gardiner, “Davies Copy of The Great Speos Artemidos Inscription,” JEA 32 : 43–56). For a more recent translation, see Redford, “Textual Sources for the Hyksos Period,” 16–18.
David, B. A. M. Neijers; Leiden: Brill, 1946), 1–28. E. : Aegptologie, 2. Abschnitt: Literatur (Leiden: Brill, 1952), 111–119. G. Posener, Littérature et politique dans l’Egypte de la XIIe dynastie (Paris: Champion, 1956). R. J. Williams, “Literature as a Medium of Political Propaganda in Ancient Egypt,” in Seed of Wisdom: Essays in Honour of T. J. Meek (ed. S. McCullough; Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1964), 14–30. 122 Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature I, 219. All quotes in this paragraph are taken from Lichtheim’s translation.
88 The orthography of the word on Hatshepsut’s obelisks is written just with . 89 Heliopolis is mentioned in line 1 of the base Quirke, The Cult of Ra, 27–29. The connection between these terms has been discussed by John Baines, “Bnbn: Mythological and Linguistic Notes,” Orientalia 39 (1970): 389–404. 90 So this obelisk text strikingly connects the monoliths to solar theology and Heliopolis. The obelisk, then, can be traced back to the Old Kingdom, and is one of the most enduring solar images from ancient Egypt.