By João Freitas, António Teixeira, Miguel Sales Dias, Samuel Silva
This e-book presents a wide and finished evaluation of the prevailing technical techniques within the zone of silent speech interfaces (SSI), either in idea and in program. every one strategy is defined within the context of the human speech construction strategy, permitting the reader to obviously comprehend the foundations in the back of SSI generally and throughout diversified equipment. also, the ebook explores the mixed use of other facts resources, accumulated from numerous sensors, with a view to take on the restrictions of easier SSI ways, addressing present demanding situations of this box. The booklet additionally presents information regarding present SSI purposes, assets and an easy educational on how you can construct an SSI.
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Additional info for An Introduction to Silent Speech Interfaces
Ten years later, in 2001, relevant results were reported by Chan et al. (2001) where ﬁve channels of surface Ag–AgCl sensors were used to recognize ten English digits. The author captured myoelectric signals from the levator anguli oris, the zygomaticus major, the platysma, the depressor anguli oris, and the anterior belly of the digastric, using electrodes embedded in a pilot’s oxygen mask. In this study, accuracy rates as high as 93 % were achieved. The same author (Chan 2003) was the ﬁrst to combine conventional automatic speech recognition (ASR) with SEMG with the goal of robust speech recognition in the presence of environment noise.
1 Measuring Non-visible Articulators and Changes in the Vocal Tract 33 Fig. 1 Placement of magnets and magnetic sensors for a PMA-based SSI. Adapted from Denby et al. 1), coupled with magnetic sensors positioned around the user’s head (Fagan et al. 2008; Gilbert et al. 2010; Hofe et al. 2013b), referred to as permanent magnetic articulography (PMA) (Hofe et al. 2013a). In contrast to EMA, PMA does not provide exact locations of the markers, as it is not yet possible to separate the signals of individual magnets from the overall magnetic field.
2013b), referred to as permanent magnetic articulography (PMA) (Hofe et al. 2013a). In contrast to EMA, PMA does not provide exact locations of the markers, as it is not yet possible to separate the signals of individual magnets from the overall magnetic field. Instead, the authors (Hofe et al. 2013a) look at the detected patterns of magnetic field fluctuations, which are associated with specific articulatory gestures through statistical modelling. For example, in Fagan et al. (2008), magnets were placed on the lips, teeth, and tongue of a subject and were tracked by six dual axis magnetic sensors incorporated into a pair of glasses.