Applications of Toxicogenomics in Safety Evaluation and Risk by Darrell R. Boverhof, B. Bhaskar Gollapudi

By Darrell R. Boverhof, B. Bhaskar Gollapudi

This e-book presents a well timed evaluate of toxicogenomics, with specified emphasis at the functional functions of this know-how to the danger review technique. Introductory sections are by means of a chain of chapters highlighting sensible and systematic functions of toxicogenomics in informing the danger evaluate technique – together with the components of mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, endocrine toxicity, organ-specific toxicity, inhabitants tracking, and ecotoxicology. The publication concludes with techniques for the combination of this know-how in defense review stories, and an outlook on how toxicogenomics and complementary applied sciences can reframe the present possibility evaluate paradigm.

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4 COMBINING ALGAL GROWTH WITH CO2 FIXATION Carbon dioxide is one of the major combustion products which, once released into the air, can contribute to global climate change [96–100]. To mitigate this phenomenon, CO2 emissions into the atmosphere must be stopped by separating and capturing CO2 from coal combustion and gasification plants. As discussed in the previous sections, the algal growth needs CO2 as a carbon source. Therefore, using algae to remediate waste gases from combustion is highly attractive.

The openpond system can be easily scaled up to several acres for individual ponds and can be 31 32 CHAPTER 2 Bioreactor design for algal growth as a sustainable energy FIGURE 3 Raceway open pond. (a) A showcase made by Seambiotic, Inc. com); (b) Aerial view [2]. converted to an indoor system by covering the pond with a layer of plastic or glass. A raceway pond is the most commonly used design for an open culture system for commercial cultivation of algae, such as Spirulina, Haematococcus, and Dunaliella.

Obviously, the pH is one of the most important factors for biomass productivity and is changed by CO2 consumption. Interestingly, with various arrangements, the polybag reactor could obtain maximum productivity in large-scale production systems and reduce operational cost. 4 Modeling of algal growth FIGURE 11 (a) Comparing algal growth and water temperature during January and July 2005. The model accurately reflects the effect of atmospheric conditions on algae growth rates and water temperature [81]; (b) Effect of water-column depth on algae growth and water temperature.

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