By Harrison, Peter; Wilson, Michael
This booklet is a realistic advisor to the detection and therapy of faults in claddings and fixings on structures. It units out the issues excited by universal cladding platforms for structures, and relates those difficulties to the entire fabrics used: stone, masonry, concrete and glass-reinforced composites
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Extra resources for Appraisal and Repair of Claddings and Fixings
2. Remedy for concrete panel failure The failure of concrete panels present very different problems, and, if due to movement, can have devastating effects on the fixings. Movement is one of the prime causes of facing panel failure, and often bad design of the fixings is the basic cause. Units bolted tightly together, or even in some extreme cases welded to the main structure, are common. Flexible joint separators should always be used between units. Such failures need individual consideration and removal; replacement will often be found essential.
If there are signs of building failure these must be examined and corrected initially, not just hidden; that would be merely a potentially expensive cosmetic repair. 4. Natural stone greater than 50 mm thick Failure of heavy natural stones may usually be attributed to the omission of cramps, the non-location of dowels or a lack of movement joints. The latter is a prime cause; the remedy is to 31 APPRAISAL AND REPAIR remove the stones and refix. Occasionally the stone may fail because it has been wrongly bedded, but this is rare.
This problem includes a full fixing failure. Various tests have been carried out on test pieces to determine the ideal and indeed essential aspects of cast-in-channel fixings. Experiments with various configurations of strap are noted and the results are interesting. 33 APPRAISAL AND REPAIR Eccentricity Load application Tension End strap left embedded Channel pulled out with concrete flake Bolt into channel Stainless steel bracket Cast-in channel in unit also incorporating window fixings Unit 4-5m long Three stiffeners, one each end and one central Loose shims Central stiffener has throughbolt and two angle brackets Unit moves forward and shears nib Tolerance gap should be 10 mm Up to 80 mm in worst case f \ Bottom restraint fixing nominally in compression Initial flaking Test piece simulating channel fixing in concrete column (b) Straight straps 45° 90° Strap acts as lever to assist failure Complete cone failure at consistent load, approx, 25 kN Complete cone failure but at very high load (c) Bolt located 20 mm from ' [ 2 5 bottom of channel '' N/mm concrete block 100 mm 20 m m - ^ ,*.